Solvitur ambulando – It is solved by walking.
Many people, including great thinkers and philosophers, swear by this mantra. Walking is known to provide innumerable benefits for our physical, mental, and spiritual health. It is also an excellent way to boost creativity, focus, and even productivity. When a global pandemic caused Iowan Kelly Madigan to cancel her 2020 travel plans, she took a long walk—270 miles—through the Loess Hills of western Iowa.
The Loess Hills are a globally significant landform. Loess soil deposits of this depth are unique to the western hemisphere; in fact, China's Loess Plateau is the only place in the world where you will find larger ones. The region is known for beautiful vistas, small communities, farmland, woodlands, and prairies, and is popular for tourists looking to escape to rural and wild spaces. The Hills encompass parts of seven counties: Plymouth, Woodbury, Monona, Harrison, Pottawattamie, Mills, and Fremont. Several coordinated conservation and recreation efforts have and continue to take place in the landform, such as the Loess Hills National Scenic Byway, Loess Hills Alliance, and Loess Hills Fire Partners.
While more than 99.9% of Iowa’s native prairies have been removed from the landscape, the majority of the state’s remnant prairies are located in the Loess Hills. Similarly, although Iowa ranks nearly last in public land access, the Loess Hills offer some of the largest public conservation and recreation areas in the state. These public areas include many miles of hiking trails, including some of the longest and most rugged trails in the Midwest. Over the years, many people have discussed the idea of a through hiking trail, similar to the Appalachian Trail, connecting these parks and trails over the the length of the Loess Hills. Until recently, however, the concept had not been attempted.
In October and November 2020, Kelly Madigan hiked the entire length of the Loess Hills, totaling about 270 miles miles. She visited public conservation and recreation areas as much as possible, hiking on gravel, dirt, and paved roads in between. She calls it the LoHi Trail, short for Loess Hills. Kelly used Facebook to post regular photo, video and text updates during her journey, which took just over six weeks. She hiked between 2 and 10 miles per day and took off eight days. She has already gained significant interest from outdoor enthusiasts and is spurring a conversation like never before. A new LoHi Trail Facebook group gained more than 100 new members in its first two weeks and continues to grow.
Kelly was born in Massachusetts. Her father was a career Air Force officer and the family moved around frequently as Kelly was growing up, which may have contributed to her longing for a deep sense of place. Today she lives in the heart of the Loess Hills in rural Monona County. Kelly and her partner Doug Chafa and his daughter, Isabel, live near the Turin Wildlife Management Area, which Doug helps manage with his job as Wildlife Biologist with Iowa Department of Natural Resources.
Kelly says, “I had visited the Loess Hills for decades, and then lived in them, and spent time hiking them. I trained to become a wildland firefighter and volunteered to assist with prescribed fire. I attended the Loess Hills Prairie Seminar year after year, and occasionally helped hand-collect local ecotype seed. Still, I wanted to understand the Loess Hills better. Literally, I wanted to know what I was standing on, what was under me. Experiencing the hills on foot was an opportunity to take in information at a human pace, and form a relationship with this landform that would live in my muscle memory. I had dreamed about it for a long time. The set of conditions the pandemic created made it seem like it was time.” While she often walked alone, Kelly occasionally had people join, with Doug and Isabel being her most frequent companions on the trail.
Patrick Swanson, a Loess Hills landowner and author of a book about his story, wrote this article about a similar idea after attending the opening hike for Brent’s Trail in 2019. Brent’s Trail is part of a trail envisioned by staff at Loess Hills State Forest connecting the largest public land complex in the Loess Hills with a hiking trail from Preparation Canyon on the north to the southern end of the Mondamin Unit. Brent’s Trail is currently just under 8 miles with an additional 5 miles under construction.
The route Kelly hiked already exists. It uses a combination of paved, gravel and dirt roads connecting existing public lands and trails wherever possible. Existing trails in the region are maintained by state, county, and municipal government agencies, nonprofit land trusts and trail groups. Roadways and streets are also maintained by the state DOT, county roads departments, and cities. Parts of the on-road route follow the Loess Hills National Scenic Byway’s main spine and excursion loops, which offer some of the most beautiful views in the Midwest. Kelly paid special attention to respecting private property, always seeking permission before walking on any privately owned land. The route Kelly hiked may not necessarily be the best route, but she tried to choose lower-traffic and more scenic routes over busy highways and the most direct routes.
Kelly’s walk began at the Iowa/South Dakota border at Millsite Access on the Big Sioux River in Plymouth County. She followed the roads east through Westfield. County roads led her through The Nature Conservancy’s Broken Kettle Grasslands, the largest remnant prairie and roadless area in all of Iowa. South of Broken Kettle, her route went through Five Ridge Prairie State Preserve, The Nature Conservancy’s Knapp Prairie and Hummel Tract, Heendah Hills State Preserve, Mount Talbot State Preserve, Stone State Park, and Sioux City Prairie Preserve.
Sioux City, the largest city on her route, offered a very different experience than the wild, rural terrain to the north. Fortunately, some recreational trails and sidewalks are available to provide hikers a more pleasant walk through the city’s downtown, industrial, and residential neighborhoods. This urban stretch includes Perry Creek Trail, South Ravine Park, Cone Park, and Sertoma Park. In Sioux City, her route crossed the Floyd River and was at its closest point to the Missouri River. After Sioux City, the LoHi route continues southeast out of Sergeant Bluff.
In rural Woodbury County near Smithland, Kelly passed through Woodbury County Conservation Board’s Oak Ridge Conservation Area, Fowler Preserve, and Southwood Conservation Area. Kelly got permission to hike through a small parcel owned by Iowa Natural Heritage Foundation (INHF) connecting these public areas.
After the small town of Rodney, her route passed through Monona County Conservation’s Peter’s Park/Rodney Pits, Iowa DNR’s Loess Hills Wildlife Area and Turin Preserve Wildlife Management Area (WMA). South of the unincorporated community of Turin and the Maple River, Kelly hiked through INHF’s Monona Complex, which she got permission to hike.
In southern Monona and northern Harrison counties, Kelly hiked through three of Iowa DNR’s four Loess Hills State Forest units (Preparation Canyon, Little Sioux, Mondamin), including part of Brent’s Trail.
Kelly's route through Harrison County also included Harrison County Conservation Board’s Gleason-Hubel Wildlife Area and Old Town Conservation Area, Soldier and Boyer river crossings, and the city of Missouri Valley.
In Pottawattamie County, Kelly hiked through unincorporated Honey Creek and then used hiking trails at the popular Hitchcock Nature Center, managed by Pottawattamie Conservation. She then hiked through the town of Crescent and into Council Bluffs, entering at Lewis & Clark Monument Park. Parts of Council Bluffs are similar to Sioux City, with a large urban center surrounded by older traditional neighborhoods and newer suburbs. Kelly's route went through Council Bluffs’ Fairmount Park trails, Vincent Bluff State Preserve’s prairie, and the Wabash Trace Nature Trail.
Near the Pottawattamie-Mills county line is TNC’s Folsom Point Preserve with remnant prairies and a well-worn footpath. Mills County Conservation Board’s Pony Creek Park and Glenwood State Archeological Preserve were also located on Kelly's route in addition to the city of Glenwood.
South of Glenwood, Kelly mostly took gravel and dirt roads into Fremont County, where she passed through Possum Hollow WMA, Waubonsie State Park and Eli Slusher WMA.
Finally, Kelly passed through Hamburg near the Nishnabotna River, then one final public land area at O.S. Wing WMA, before reaching the Missouri state line.
Kelly is currently collaborating with Larksong Writers Place to host a (virtual) place-based writing workshop focused on the Loess Hills that begins January 19th. “￼From the Black Angel statue in Council Bluffs, to a cave in Sergeant Bluff, to a lighted star on a bluff in Turin, to a young female cougar with a radio collar, a long-lost uncle with a steep driveway, a badger letting you know to back off, a voice heard in the night, the view from a turkey blind, or a miraculous harvest of morel mushrooms, the Loess Hills are alive with stories. Using a variety of examples, prompts and exercises, we will explore the hills creatively, crafting poems, stories and short memoir that reflect the unusual terrain and the experiences held there. Participants will be invited (but not required) to share a sample of their completed work at a Loess Hills Writers event.” Learn more and register here.
Kelly is also working with other hiking enthusiasts on planning a multi-day trail hike in Monona County in 2021. Stay updated by joining The LoHi Trail Facebook group. The group is a place for people to share ideas for conserving the fragile Loess Hills while promoting low-impact recreation and ecotourism.
As part of the tri-county CabinItiative project spearheaded by the Loess Hills Missouri River Region, eight new cabins were constructed or are currently under construction in southwest Iowa's Harrison, Pottawattamie, and Mills counties. Willow Lake's cabins opened this year, and Arrowhead and Pony Creek's are expected to open in early 2021. Sasquatch has been sighted at all three parks recently, and offers ringing endorsements of the parks and cabins.
Arrowhead County Park
Pottawattamie Conservation's Arrowhead Park near Neola includes 147 acres for outdoor recreation and is a popular camping spot. In 2020, three new cabins were built on the east side of the park overlooking the 17-acre lake. They are expected to open in early 2021. Explore the park by hiking several miles through wooded hillsides and around the scenic lake.
Willow Lake Nature Center
Willow Lake Nature Center near Woodbine is owned and managed by Harrison County Conservation Board. Like Arrowhead, Willow Lake offers camping, hiking, and a popular lake for fishing, paddling, and swimming. Two smaller cabins and a third deluxe cabin opened in 2020 and have been booked since!
Pony Creek Nature Center
Mills County Conservation Board's Pony Creek is getting two new cabins, which are currently under construction. They are expected to open in late winter or early spring 2021. This park also includes a popular lake, campgrounds, hiking trails, a new educational nature center, and more.
Despite major changes and challenges this year, Golden Hills made progress on our mission and goals. Learn more in our 2020 Annual Report below or click here to download a pdf.
The winter solstice, the shortest day of the year, occurs in the northern hemisphere between December 20 and 23. This year, it happens on Monday, December 21.
From USA Today: "The winter solstice is the precise moment at which the Northern Hemisphere is tilted farthest from the sun.
The solstice occurs at the same instant everywhere on Earth: Here in the United States, it happens at 5:02 a.m. ET on Dec. 21.
At that moment, the sun's rays are directly over the Tropic of Capricorn, a line of latitude that circles the Earth in the Southern Hemisphere.
Though the solstice marks the astronomical beginning of winter, meteorologists view winter as starting Dec. 1, which is the start of the coldest three months in the Northern Hemisphere."
This year, stargazers have a couple things to look forward to in the longest-of-the-year night sky.
The "Great Conjunction" occurs Monday evening, where the planets Jupiter and Saturn will appear to cross paths in the sky.
According to NASA, "It’s been nearly 400 years since the planets passed this close to each other in the sky, and nearly 800 years since the alignment of Saturn and Jupiter occurred at night, as it will for 2020, allowing nearly everyone around the world to witness this 'great conjunction.'" To view the conjunction in western Iowa, look southwest after sunset. The planets will be visible above the horizon between about 5:30 and 7:30pm CST.
Later in the evening into Tuesday morning, the last meteor shower of 2020, the Ursids, will be visible. While often overshadowed by the Geminid meteor shower that peaked a week earlier, the Ursids are still worth a look. "Observers will normally see 5-10 Ursids per hour during the late morning hours on the date of maximum activity...There have been occasional outbursts when rates have exceeded 25 per hour" (Source: Accuweather).
The Ursids will "radiate" from near Ursa Minor ("Little Dipper"), meaning the best viewing will be looking north towards Polaris and the Big and Little Dippers.
To view these celestial events, find a dark place away from urban and industrial light pollution. Some parts of the Loess Hills, especially in Harrison and Monona counties, are good places to view the night sky. Several areas along Western Skies Scenic Byway are also good places to avoid light pollution. Whiterock Conservancy is recognized as one of the darkest places in Iowa.
If you don't like the darkness, don't worry--the days will slowly get longer from now until next June!
November 17 has been designated as National Take a Hike Day. It's a great time to head to your favorite trail or explore a new one. Western Iowa has many great places to hike. Golden Hills has several resources with information about parks and trails for hiking, including:
This blog post about places to hike in the Loess Hills Missouri River Region of Harrison, Pottawattamie & Mills Counties.
This post about parks and trails along Western Skies Scenic Byway in Harrison, Shelby, Audubon and Guthrie counties.
Golden Hills maintains the Loess Hills Hiking Guide, which includes information about all the Loess Hills counties (Plymouth, Woodbury, Monona, Harrison, Pottawattamie, Mills, & Fremont).
Where are you hiking today?
November is recognized across the U.S. as Native American Heritage Month. "America is a vast land of many cultures dating back thousands of years to the original inhabitants of the land. History, heritage, or culture of Native Americans, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians are part of every national park and communities across the country today. Every November during Native American Heritage Month and throughout the year, the National Park Service and our partners share history and the continuing culture of America's indigenous peoples."
The area of western Iowa, where Golden Hills works, includes ancestral lands of the Báxoje Máyaⁿ (Ioway), Očhéthi Šakówiŋ; Umoⁿhoⁿ tóⁿde ukʰéthiⁿ (Omaha), Washtáge Moⁿzháⁿ (Kaw/Kansa), and Yankton peoples. Many place names in the region, including Pottawattamie, Missouri, Mondamin, Neola, Nishnabotna, Nodaway, Sioux, and Waubonsie, come from native languages.
European colonizers led the forced removal and genocide of native peoples across the continent, including here in Iowa. Still, more than 16,000 indigenous people call what is now the state of Iowa (a native word for the Ioway tribe) their home.
Find out which tribes lived in your area with this map:
Many foods, medicines, and other products, and even the the political system we call federalism, originated with indigenous people. Learn more about these contributions.
While many people think of native people living off the land without impacting it, they actually managed and stewarded the land sustainably for thousands of years. Native people grew crops, hunted animals, built homes, made tools, clothing, and supplies, and started regular fires that helped prairie and savanna ecosystems thrive.
Because indigenous peoples here before colonization did not have written language, most of what we know about them comes from archaeological research and early Europeans' writings.
In southwest Iowa, much research has been dedicated to the Glenwood Culture, centered around the confluence of the Platte and Missouri rivers south of Omaha (a native word meaning "upstream").
Golden Hills helped develop The Immense Journey: Loess Hills Cultural Resources Study, which is available for free download.
Today, the Meskwaki Nation is the only indigenous settlement in the state but small slivers of the Omaha and Winnebago reservations in Nebraska extend across the Missouri River into Iowa. These sites offer opportunities to learn about the tribes' cultures through events such as powwows.
Although the land and people have changed drastically in the last two centuries, contemporary Iowans owe much to the native peoples who lived here first and should recognize that indigenous people do still live here.
Visit the Bureau of Indian Affairs website to learn more about how to celebrate Native American Heritage Month. Additionally, many states including Iowa recognize Indigenous People's Day in October.
University of Iowa Press also has several books available to purchase online, including:
The Office of the State Archaeologist has more information about Iowa's native peoples on their website.
National Bison Day, held annually the first Saturday of November, is a "commemoration of the ecological, cultural, historical and economic contribution of a national icon, the American bison."
According to the National Bison Association: "The bison, North America’s largest land mammal, have an important role in America’s history, culture and economy. Before being nearly wiped from existence by westward expansion, bison roamed across most of North America. The species is acknowledged as the first American conservation success story, having been brought back from the brink of extinction by a concerted effort of ranchers, conservationists and politicians to save the species in the early 20th century. In 1907, President Teddy Roosevelt and the American Bison Society began this effort by shipping 15 animals by train from the Bronx Zoo to Oklahoma’s Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge. Many Native American tribes revere bison as a sacred and spiritual symbol of their heritage and maintain private bison herds on tribal lands throughout the West. Bison now exist in all 50 states in public and private herds, providing recreation opportunities for wildlife viewers in zoos, refuges and parks and sustaining the multimillion dollar bison ranching and production business."
While National Parks in the mountain west are typically thought of, bison were once abundant across Iowa. No wild populations remain, but several public and private landowners in the state have bison today. One great way to celebrate National Bison Day is to visit one of several places in western Iowa with public viewing of bison.
Botna Bend Park
This park is owned and managed by Pottawattamie Conservation and is located in the town of Hancock in eastern Pottawattamie County. It is located within the the Loess Hills Missouri River Region and along the West Nish Water Trail. The park includes bison and elk herds that can be easily viewed from the road. The park has a $3 entrance fee unless you have a Pottawattamie county parks annual pass.
Botna Bend even has a white bison, which are extremely rare.
Broken Kettle Grassland
The Nature Conservancy in Iowa owns the largest remnant prairie in the state in Plymouth County along the northern end of the Loess Hills National Scenic Byway, and includes a herd of bison. Because they have a relatively large area to roam, you may not be able to get close. But drive Butcher Road and you may see them in the distance.
Prairie Heritage Center
O'Brien County Conservation Board's Prairie Heritage Center, along Glacial Trail Scenic Byway, has a small herd of bison.
Swan Lake State Park
Located in Carroll County, this park is managed by Carroll County Conservation Board and has a small bison herd.
This 5,500-acre land trust is a short drive from Western Skies Scenic Byway in Guthrie County. Whiterock is open to public visitation and includes dozens of miles of hiking, mountain biking, equestrian trails, camping, paddling, fishing, and much more.
In a previous post about Western Skies Scenic Byway, we discussed how wind and water shaped the landscape of western Iowa. In addition to natural forces, people have also helped shape the modern landscape. Humans have inhabited the land that is western Iowa for thousands of years, impacting the landscape since the beginning. Indigenous people cultivated crops, built homes, and started regular fires. After European colonization beginning in the late 19th century, the land changed much more dramatically and rapidly.
The contemporary landscape of western Iowa would be unrecognizable compared to the vast prairies and wetlands that covered the state prior to colonization. Iowa is the most altered of all 50 states, with the least amount of "wild" or "natural" places. "The state of Iowa has lost 99.9% of its prairies, 98% percent of its wetlands, 80% of its woodlands, 50% percent of its topsoils, and more than 100 species of wildlife since settlement in the early 1800’s. There has been a significant deterioration in the quality of Iowa’s surface waters and groundwaters." (Source: Iowa Code, Section 455A.15 Legislative Findings). The region has some of the best cropland in the world, and prairies and wetlands were converted to rowcrops over only a couple generations. Many of the steeper slopes were converted to non-native pastures. With this vegetation and land use change, the entire ecosystem changed from some of the most biodiversity on the planet to among the least.
On top of the vegetative change, nearly all the rivers and creeks in western Iowa were channelized in the 20th Century. Straightening streams shortened their length, which increased the slope and caused the waterways to cut downwards into the deep, highly erodible loess soils. Most streams in the region have severe to extreme bank erosion and are carved 10 to 20 feet (or more) into the surrounding land. The increased stream slope also led to widespread gully erosion, with small waterfalls called knickpoints on many streams. The drastic elevation changes have required streambed grade control structures like spillways and dams to help protect roads, bridges, utilities and other infrastructure.
Due to their silty nature, the deep loess soils are home to the worst soil erosion on the continent. In fact, "loess" is a German word for "loose" and is colloquially called "sugarclay" due its erosiveness. The maps below show rill and sheet erosion in the continental U.S. in 2012 and 1982. While erosion has been reduced from more than 12 tons per acre to 6-8 tons per acre, this is still a concerning erosion rate. Learn about different types of soil erosion here.
Fortunately, agricultural conservation practices, especially terraces and water and sediment control basins, have reduced erosion. Planting rowcrops on contour instead of vertically on slopes also helps to slow erosion rates. These practices are nearly ubiquitous on western Iowa's croplands, further shaping the landscape. The earthen berms reduce rill and sheet erosion and runoff.
Prior to colonization and subsequent stream channelization, the prairie streams meandered across their valleys with crystal-clear water, as described in some early pioneer accounts. Today the sheet, rill, gully and streambank erosion makes the streams run a muddy brown color. New evidence has shown that phosphorous levels in streams are likely impacted significantly by streambank erosion, as "legacy" nutrients get stored in the soil and enter waterways when riverbanks erode.
Some of the poorly-drained areas, especially on the Des Moines lobe in northeastern Guthrie County and some of the larger river valleys like the Missouri in Harrison County, were tiled to convey water off the land and improve agricultural opportunities. Tiling can carry nutrients, sediment, and pollutants into drainage ditches and streams, further decreasing water quality. Tiling is usually invisible above ground, but you may see the end of tile lines going into drainage districts or streams. Learn more about tiling and terracing here.
Besides agricultural development, humans have built residential, industrial, commercial, and other infrastructure that shapes the land. Most of the communities in the region were founded along rail lines, which were some of the earliest transportation routes before many roads were built.
Most railroads in this corridor have been abandoned and are no longer active. Some have been replaced by recreational trails like the T-Bone Trail through Audubon County and the Raccoon River Valley Trail in Guthrie County. Many others were removed and have been farmed for decades, with no trace remaining. In some cases, the remnants are visible from satellite imagery and LIDAR, like this area just southwest of Harlan in Shelby County.
Many settlements that began before railroad construction eventually withered into ghost towns. In some cases, a few houses remain, but often there are no visible signs of these ghost towns on the landscape.
The highway and road system also greatly contributed to the region's altered landscape and hydrology. For the most part, roadways are built up several feet from the surrounding landscape similar to railroads, and cut into the tops of the hills to reduce slopes. Unlike the railroads, which often followed the path of least resistance, the road system was set up on orthogonal grid system oriented along the cardinal directions, regardless of terrain. Some exceptions to the grid exist, especially in the hilliest parts of Harrison and Guthrie counties. Since the grid does not follow topographic or hydrologic boundaries, the construction of the road system in some cases altered watershed boundaries. Ditches on either side of the roads funnel water into the nearest stream, increasing flash flooding and nutrient runoff.
Next time you drive Western Skies Scenic Byway, try to spot how the land has been sculpted by human development, in addition to natural processes like wind and water.
October is an excellent time to visit Loess Hills National Scenic Byway™, Western Skies Scenic Byway, and Glacial Trail Scenic Byway in western Iowa. Peak fall foliage generally occurs earlier in the north and later in the south. Check out the Iowa Department of Natural Resources' weekly fall color report.
Loess Hills National Scenic Byway runs from near Akron in the north to Hamburg in the south. The northern end is located in Plymouth County in northwest Iowa, with peak colors predicted from the last week of September through the second week of October. Stone State Park in Sioux City is one great place to go leaf-peeping. Colors along Glacial Trail Scenic Byway in Buena Vista, Cherokee, Clay, & O'Brien counties will peak in the same timeframe.
Western Skies Scenic Byway is in Harrison, Shelby, Audubon and Guthrie counties in west-central Iowa. Peak colors are expected in the first through third weeks of October.
Floodplain forests along the Missouri River valley are abundant with glowing gold cottonwoods. Desoto National Wildlife Refuge near Missouri Valley is an exemplary location for cottonwood woodlands.
On the steep Loess Hills bluffs, tallgrass prairie grasses have turned to their characteristic amber-gold and wine-red hues. These colors contrast with the occasional dark-green coniferous junipers (eastern red cedars). Staghorn sumac and poison ivy are turning bright red. Yellow goldenrods and purple asters also dot the prairies.
The southern Loess Hills, including Waubonsie State Park in Fremont County, generally have greater tree species diversity and thus a wider array of tree foliage colors.
Similarly, some of the woodlands in Guthrie County (such as at Whiterock Conservancy and Springbrook State Park) have more diversity than the western Loess Hills, including more colorful maples.
In addition to public parks and wildlife areas, exploring backroads can be one of the best ways to see fall colors. This is especially useful for folks who may not be able to hike or bike through the hills. Loess Hills National Scenic Byway includes 185 miles of Excursion Loops, many of which traverse the most scenic, rugged, and rural terrain in the region.
Wherever you go, you will also likely see the golden fields of corn and soybeans before they are harvested. On a sunny day, they contrast with bright blue skies for a spectacular spectacle. Have fun exploring rural western Iowa by automobile, bike, on foot, or however you choose!
The landscape of western Iowa was formed primarily by wind and water. Several distinct landforms are visible along Western Skies Scenic Byway, which parallels Interstate 80 through Harrison, Shelby, Audubon and Guthrie counties.
The Loess Hills are deposits of aeolian (wind-blown) silt up to 200 feet high. The Hills parallel the wide, flat Missouri Alluvial Plain immediately to their west. Some of the larger river valleys also feature flat, relatively wide floodplains.
The Loess Hills near Missouri Valley in Harrison County. The flat Missouri Alluvial Plain is in the background on the left side of the photo, and the Boyer River Valley is the flat area on the right side. The city of Missouri Valley is located at the confluence of these two valleys. Photo taken by Lance Brisbois at Old Town Conservation Area.
East of the Loess Hills lies the Southern Iowa Drift Plain. Here, streams and rivers have carved valleys, resulting in a rolling landscape. Driving west to east along Western Skies Scenic Byway, you will almost always be going up or down.
On the eastern edge of the Byway is the Des Moines Lobe. This area was covered during the most recent glaciation, and the land is mostly flat. It was home to many wetlands and small lakes called prairie potholes, though most of the land has been drained for cropland. Around Panora and to the north and east, you will notice the landscape is much less rolling than it is to the south and west.
Retreating glaciers left terminal moraines, or visible ridges where the glacier stopped advancing. A terminal moraine is visible in northern Guthrie County near Whiterock Conservancy. Whiterock is also home to a kame, which is a gravelly mound deposited by the retreating glacier.
Wind and water also contributed to historic and current vegetation and land use. Most of the landscape was prairie, with scattered savanna and open woodlands. The Missouri River and other floodplains had some dense stands of forest. A few places in the steep Loess Hills were fairly wooded. The Des Moines Lobe was primarily wetlands with countless ponds and small lakes. Nearly all of the prairies and wetlands have been converted to cropland, except for the steepest areas where farm machinery cannot safely navigate. Many of those areas are instead grazed or hayed pasture now. More than half of Iowa's remaining prairies are located in the Loess Hills.
Modern land uses and vegetation along Western Skies. Tan is cropland, orange and gold are pastures, green is woodland. Notice how well the cropland aligns with the prairies, except for the steepest areas that are now mostly pasture. Source: Iowa Geographic Map Server (https://isugisf.maps.arcgis.com/apps/webappviewer/index.html?id=47acfd9d3b6548d498b0ad2604252a5c)
Over several thousand years, drainage networks formed throughout the region, creating small streams, larger rivers, and watersheds. A watershed is the area of land that drains into a specific body of water. Watersheds are categorized by Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) based on their size. HUC-8 watersheds are larger, including the Boyer & Mosquito in Harrison County, West Nishnabotna in Shelby County, East Nishnabotna in Audubon County, , and the Raccoon in Guthrie County.
Tributaries of the HUC-8 rivers are HUC-12 watersheds. Driving from east to west, you will cross a new HUC-12 watershed every few miles.
West of Guthrie Center on Highway 44, you will cross the Missouri-Mississippi watershed divide. Rainfall and snowmelt on the east side of this subtle ridge eventually flows into the Mississippi River, while water on the west side of the line makes its way into the Missouri River. Although barely visible, This divide separates two of the largest river systems on the continent. As you cross the divide, notice how streams change from flowing southwesterly on the west side to southeasterly on the east side. The drainage and valley patterns are believed to have contributed to pre-colonization vegetation. Hot, dry southwest winds likely carried fire longer distances up the river valleys and ridges west of the M&M divide. East of the divide, streams ran perpendicular to the prevailing winds, each offering a barrier to fire systems.
The Missouri-Mississippi divide is generally a line of highest elevation from northwestern to south-central Iowa.
Elevation map of Western Skies counties. Green is lowest (river valleys), then yellows, reds, and gray/white is the highest elevation. The M&M divide runs through the whitish area. Map source: : Iowa Geographic Map Server - https://isugisf.maps.arcgis.com/apps/webappviewer/index.html?id=47acfd9d3b6548d498b0ad2604252a5c
These relatively higher elevations offer some of the greatest wind energy potential in the state. Driving across the Byway, you will likely see some wind farms in addition to the many historical windmills dotting the landscape.
Next time you visit Western Skies Scenic Byway, try to identify the landforms and watersheds and note how wind and water have shaped the land over time!