August 19 is World Photography Day, "an annual, worldwide celebration of the art, craft, science and history of photography."
Golden Hills Project Coordinator Lance Brisbois is an hobby picture-taker who takes many photos of western Iowa's Loess Hills and surrounding landscapes. Here are a few of his tips for taking landscape photos using your smartphone.
Before you go
Some basic photography tips
The “Rule of Thirds” is one of the easiest ways to improve overall composition of a photo. This “rule” is one of the most important for framing your subject. Imagine your frame has two horizontal lines one-third the distance from the top & bottom of the frame, and two vertical lines one-third of the way in from each side. Most camera apps have a setting that will show the lines when you’re taking a photo. Avoid placing major lines or subjects right in the middle of the image or too far towards the edges. Focal points don't need to be exactly on the lines or points, but close to them.
Level the horizon – Camera apps can help you straighten the horizon showing the one-third lines. Make sure the horizon is level with either the top or bottom third line and not higher on one side of the photo.
Spatial inhomogeneity is fancy way of saying add some diversity. Layers help create depth and different spatial dimensions. Some negative space--unoccupied areas around a subject--is often good. But you can have too much of it. A photo that is nearly all empty blue sky, a grassland from a distance, or a large body of water with nothing in it can be too much negative space. If your photo includes a large prairie, for example, try to find a rolling hill, or treeline, or a stream to add to the lower third to create a sense of depth. Instead of having two-thirds of the photo without many features, try to limit it to one-third. A photo of a lake could include a boat or dock to break up the negative space.
Difference in elevation (hills and valleys) is one good way to introduce diversity. A mixture of natural and human-built features is also visually appealing to many people--this could include a crop field with trees in the background, a river with a boat, or a hiking trail through a prairie or woodland. A large tree surrounded by grassland, such as an oak savanna, is another good way to break up homogeneity.
You can, however, have too much spatial inhomogeneity. A photo with many lines and objects can be overwhelming. Experiment by framing one, two, or three or more subjects and see how the photos compare.
Use "leading lines" to draw the viewer's eyes through the scene. Trails, roads, rivers, and streams are all good ways to create depth and draw the viewers’ eye along. Place a leading line along a vertical one-third line and/or make the point end at a horizon on the horizontal one-third line.
Frame before taking shot – The best way to crop a photo is to frame it before you take the shot instead of afterwards. It's often more difficult to crop to the rule of thirds
Try different angles and heights. Move around from left to right and closer & farther from the subject to capture the best lighting and color. Place the camera higher or lower than eye level. This can also help you align better with the Rule of Thirds and play around with negative space.
Take many photos and sort later – If you’re shooting different angles and distances from the subject, you will take a lot of photos. To save time in the field, take a lot of photos from different angles and delete duplicates later.
Take advantage of the magic hour – The “magic” or “golden” hour is within about an hour after sunrise or an hour before sunset, depending on time of year and other factors. The sun is low in the sky and casts warm, golden hues. Harsh lighting and shadows are limited. Human activities cause more air pollution throughout the day, so sunsets are generally less clear than sunrises.
For sunrises and sunsets, you want some clouds to create colorful and interesting skies, but not too many clouds that they completely drown out the sunset. Western wildfires in the summer can create interesting orange lighting, but too much smoke can completely wash out the sunset into a gray haze. If you're going out during the Golden Hour check what time the sunrise or sunset time.
Don’t zoom or use flash—photo quality typically suffers on smartphones when you zoom or use the flash.
Scenic Solutions lists several important variables that can help determine what might appeal to more people:
"Coherence is the ease of cognitively organizing or comprehending a scene – “good gestalt.” It involves making sense of the scene. It includes factors which make the scene more comprehensible to organize it into a manageable number of major objects and/or areas. Research indicates that people hold onto information about scenes in chunks and that up to five can be retained in the working memory. A scene with about five major units will be coherent. Repetition of elements and smooth textures help to identify an area. Changes in texture or brightness should correspond with an important activity in the scene – where it does not, the scene lacks coherence."
"Mystery is the promise that more information could be gained by moving deeper into setting, e.g. a trail disappearing, a bend in a road, a brightly lit clearing partially obscured from view by foliage. New information is not present but is inferred from what is in the scene, there is thus a sense of continuity between what is seen and what is anticipated. A scene high in mystery is one in which one could learn more if one were to proceed further into the scene."
"Complexity is the involvement component – a scene’s capacity to keep an individual busy, i.e. occupied without being bored or overstimulated. Often referred to as diversity, variety or richness it used to be regarded as the single most important factor. The Kaplans describes it as how much is “going on” in the scene – a single field of corn stretching to the horizon will not have the same level of complexity as many fields of many crops on undulating land with hedgerows and cottages. The more complex scene will tend to be preferred to the simple."
"Legibility is the ability to predict and to maintain orientation as one moves more deeply into a scene. It entails “safety in the context of space” (Kaplan, 1979) and is similar, though much broader, to Appleton’s concept of refuge. Legibility, like mystery, involves an opportunity to promise to function, to know one’s way and the way back. It thus deals with the structuring of space, with its differentiation, with its readability. Legible scenes are easy to oversee, to form a mental map. Legibility is enhanced by distinctive elements such as landmarks, smooth textures, and the ease of compartmentalizing the scene into parts. While coherence focuses on the conditions for perceiving the scene, legibility is concerned with movement within it.".
For much more detail on these variables, check out Scenic Solutions' Landscape Theory page.
The science behind the art
While every person is different and like different things, there are trends and factors that tend to be more universally appealing. Certain types of landscapes are more attractive than others to the public overall. The reasons behind this is not fully known, but several theories exist. The next few paragraphs may be way too much information for beginning photographers, but can be helpful for figuring out what makes a "good" picture and why.
“The philosopher Dennis Dutton has suggested that the open rolling plains with occasional trees, that are so often represented in landscape art, are beautiful to us because they resemble the savanna of the Pleistocene epoch, when Homo erectus was first developing an aesthetic sense (Source: Science Focus).
"Habitat theory postulates that because the habitats in which humans are believed to have evolved were dominated by grasslands and scattered trees with water in close proximity, this became a preferred visual landscape for humans....The preference for park-like landscapes is the only landscape form that appears to have endured across the millennia. (Source: Scenic Solutions).
Research across cultures shows innate preferences from a young age for savannas and even specific types of trees (Source: Psychology Today.)
The chart below from Howley indicates that "Water related landscapes attracted the highest mean scores by respondents. Cultural related landscapes are also highly regarded by respondents as all of the images in this category also attracted relatively high mean scores. In relation to the agricultural landscapes, respondents rated all of these quite highly as all the mean sores were at the upper end of the 6 point scale. The agricultural landscapes that respondents appeared to like least, however, were the more intensive farming landscapes such as the images showing wheat, potato and sugar beet fields. Wild unmanaged vegetation and bogland were the landscape types that respondents liked the least" (Source: Howley).
One reason the Golden Hour lighting might appeal to us is because "Red sunsets would have been a familiar part of these landscapes and in an era when night was the most dangerous time, making sure you were safely back at camp to appreciate the last dying gasp of the day was probably especially important" (Source: Science Focus)
It's possible the golden lighting is also preferable because it reminds us of the golden glow of a campfire. Cooking around a fire is one of the factors that made us human. An evening fire with family and tribal members would have provided a sense of community and safety that was not as prevalent while roaming the savannas during the day.
A person's life experience can also affect what landscapes they prefer. Farmers tend to like agricultural landscapes more than non-farmers, for example (Source: Journal of Landscape Ecology). Familiarity with a specific landscape also makes places more attractive to certain features. "People prefer landscapes experienced during childhood, but seem to attach more easily to qualities that are suggested to have an innate significance" (Source: Landscape Research).
The rule of thirds relates to the Golden Ratio, and Fibonacci sequence, which occurs commonly throughout nature, science, mathematics, and art. The Golden Ratio has been used for many centuries to create broadly appealing visual artworks. In addition to the composition of a photo, the dimensions (length x width) can also look better if closer to this ratio.
Fractals are another variable commonly found in both nature and art, that human eyes are drawn to and find aesthetically pleasing. River systems, tree branches, and our own circulatory system are examples of repeating fractal patterns. Although the reasons are not fully understood, research indicates that looking at fractal patterns can reduce stress levels (Source: The Smithsonian).
Hopefully all this wonky science stuff isn't too overwhelming. Golden Hour, Golden Ratio, fractals, and some complexity & negative space (but not too much of either) are a good summary of things to look for when taking photos of the land. Our landscape in western Iowa was once dominated by grasslands with a few scattered trees. If you can find an oak savanna, you will likely find it to be beautiful. The dramatic bluffs of the Loess Hills and meandering waterways also tend to provide attractive scenery good for photographing.
After taking photos...
Editing - I use the Snapseed app, which is free, but there are many others available. I turn up the brightness on my screen when editing. I usually start by increasing the "Ambiance" setting, then "Shadows," then any others to fit my preference. The "Saturation," "Structure," and "Sharpen" settings are good in moderation but can easily be overdone. Keep in mind that a photo that looks good on a phone screen may not keep resolution or look good when enlarged. The best way to edit is to practice and play around with the different settings to see what you like best.
Organize – This can take a lot of time, but in the end you’ll thank yourself . Name photos based on the subject and put the date in the file name. For example, “Old Town sunset 10-20-20” will make it easier to search and find a photo than the string of numbers that the file is automatically named. This is useful if you want to find a specific photo of a place or time of year. I do this by tethering the phone to a computer and finding the files.
A few more general tips:
Outdoor recreation opportunities a abundant in the Loess Hills Missouri River Region of Iowa, which includes Harrison, Pottawattamie, and Mills counties. Golden Hills recently worked with many partners to develop promotional videos highlighting some of the outdoor amenities available to locals and tourists. Visit wanderloess.com for details on attractions and amenities in the tri-county region.
Harrison County has thousands of acres of public hunting on state and county public lands plus thousands more acres of Iowa Hunting Access Program (IHAP) where private landowners allow public hunting. Dozens of miles of Loess Hills hiking trails and scenic views are available throughout the county, including Murray Hill Scenic Overlook, Brent's Trail, and Loess Hills State Forest. Camping and cabins are available at the popular Willow Lake Recreation Area.
The Mills County video highlights state and county public lands with hiking, biking, paddling, fishing, camping, and other summer activities. Willow Slough Wildlife Area features more than 600 acres of wetlands and is popular for hunting and fishing. Mills County Conservation Board's Mile Hill Lake offers paddling, fishing, hiking, and more, and West Oak Forest includes panoramic views from Loess Hills ridgetops with several miles of hiking trails.
The Wabash Trace Nature Trail, owned and managed by the nonprofit Southwest Iowa Nature Trails, Inc., runs diagonally through Mills County and passes through several small towns. The trail is known for bridges like the West Nishnabotna River overhead truss bridge highlighted in the video.
In summer 2020, we created two videos highlighting parks and wildlife areas in eastern Pottawattamie County.
View the Pottawattamie County videos here
Thank you to our many partners, including:
by Seth Brooks
The Loess Hills were formed by three natural forces: ice, wind, and water. During the final two glacial advances of the Ice Age—the first approximately 150,000 years ago and the second 18,000 years ago—glaciers in Canada, Minnesota, and the Dakotas ground bedrock into a fine sediment called glacial flour. Meltwater then carried the glacial flour south into the river valleys of today’s Midwest, where it was deposited in broad floodplains. As the meltwater slowed and the sediment dried, the fine particles were picked up by strong westerly winds and slowly accumulated into rolling dunes of dirt. These windblown sediment deposits, named loess from the German word for loose, were stabilized by grasses and then carved by water erosion into the razor ridges and deep gullies that we see today in the Loess Hills of western Iowa.
The westernmost bluffs are the steepest and offer the most dramatic views of the abrupt change from the flat floodplain of the Missouri River Valley to the angular ridges of the Loess Hills. Perhaps the best place to experience this contrast is the Mondamin Unit of the Loess Hills State Forest. With over ten miles of trails in the unit, hikers can create several loops of varying distances. There are two main trailheads with parking that offer the best access to the Mondamin Unit.
Approaching the unit from the east on Highway 127, Mondamin Hill rises abruptly at the junction with Highway 183. Continue east on Highway 127 through the junction to arrive at the southern trailhead—the turn-off is marked by a brown sign in both directions. To reach the northern trailhead, turn north at the junction and follow Highway 183 approximately two miles until you see the brown sign indicating the turn-off for the trailhead. Different loops can be hiked from each trailhead; let’s start with the southern section of the Mondamin Unit.
The recommended way to begin the southern loop is clockwise, as climbing up the ridge of Mondamin Hill is much easier and safer than descending, especially if the path is muddy. The trail climbs over two hundred feet in three-tenths of a mile—not worth batting an eye at if you’re a mountaineer but for flatlanders this nearly qualifies as a mountain. After “summiting” Mondamin Hill, the trail levels out and follows a wide path cut in the prairie grass atop the ridge. Soak in the views to the west of the Missouri River Valley and note the steep western slope covered in prairie grass. The shrubs, hardwoods, and eastern redcedars creeping up the west-facing bluffs are kept at bay by periodic prescribed fires to preserve the ridgetop prairie.
After almost one mile, the ridgetop trail descends briefly down the eastern hillside through a wooded area only to climb back atop the ridge. The bench at the one-mile marker is a perfect place to sit and take in the expansive views of the Missouri River floodplain. Leaving the bench behind you, the trail ahead offers a few possibilities. I prefer to continue along the ridge for one mile (from the bench) until you have no other option but to descend down the western slope into a pleasant wooded hollow. This path will loop back up to the ridge, arriving at a crossroads you will have passed earlier while walking north along the ridge.
This crossroads gives you several options again; I recommend continuing straight down the eastern hillside to investigate an interesting grove of white poplars that is conspicuously out of place amongst the bur oaks and hardwoods. This trail will loop back up to the ridge, where you will immediately descend once again the eastern slope albeit on a different trail. This trail will lead through a densely wooded area until you reach an open field. From here, the trail is a straight-forward: head south one and a half miles to return to the trailhead.
Like the southern loop, the northern loop offers various options allowing you to make your own loop. I completed a variation of a lollipop loop that traverses the westernmost ridge in both directions. I believe the trail along this ridge is the most dramatic of all the razor ridge trails I have hiked in the Loess Hills, thus worthy of hiking the ridge in both directions. However, feel free to tackle this section of the Mondamin Unit as you wish.
If you do hike a classic loop, however, you will miss a tranquil meadow that separates the western and eastern ridges of said loop. I recommend exploring this meadow, especially the southern end where you can find a great spot for a picnic or an overnight campsite next to an old bur oak. Someone has constructed a table and placed two large logs around a fire pit dug into the ground. The lack of water nearby, however, would require you to hike in all your water for the duration of your stay.
This would be the ideal spot to camp if you wish to combine both the northern and southern loops into a ten-mile tour of the entire Mondamin Unit, made possible by a 1.5-mile trail that connects the two sections (refer to the Iowa DNR map of the Mondamin Unit). While certainly possible to hike all ten miles in one day, the option of dispersed camping in the Loess Hills State Forest allows you to take advantage of this spot in an idyllic meadow. If you do camp, please follow Leave No Trace principles.
by Seth Brooks
I was living in a sleepy fishing village on the northwestern coast of Spain when COVID-19 shut down the world. Locked in a tiny rooftop apartment with no internet, and isolated from family and friends by thousands of miles, I decided to return home once Spain’s strict quarantine restrictions were loosened.
Once at home in Nebraska, I found myself locked down again as a second wave swept across the nation just as winter set in. Another months-long quarantine would have been devastating to both my physical and mental health, so I searched for places to get outside and hike despite the dropping temperatures and dwindling daylight. I preferred Nebraska winters to the oppressive summers, anyway.
My first instinct was to head to the Loess Hills. I was familiar with the region having worked in western Iowa as a political organizer upon graduating from Creighton University in 2004. When I walked the Camino de Santiago in Spain for the first time in 2009, I dreamed of blazing a path for a thru-hike up the spine of the Loess Hills (Kelly Madigan did so herself in 2020 when she created the LoHi Trail). The problem I encountered now, however, was the lack of centralized and comprehensive information about hiking trails in the Loess Hills. I spent hours searching the websites of the various organizations that managed land in western Iowa. Instead of getting outside, I wasted time inside figuring out where I could hike.
Thus, an idea was born: to create a guide of the hiking trails in the Loess Hills. I gathered all the information I could about land open to the public where hiking was allowed: public lands managed by the Iowa Department of Natural Resources or county conservation boards and conservation areas managed by private organizations such as The Nature Conservancy. I also decided to include the eastern side of the Missouri River Valley, as the Nebraska bluffs offered various opportunities for outdoor recreation.
Then, I walked. More than three hundred miles atop prairie grass ridges and through the wooded hollows of the Loess Hills. I recorded and mapped each hike, noting waypoints to provide detailed directions and distance. Since I began in early November, I have compiled a list of more than fifty hikes on both sides of the Missouri River Valley. Ultimately, I hope to publish these hikes in a guidebook with information about the unique geology, biology, and history of the Loess Hills. In the meantime, I am glad to share some of my favorites hikes that I have recorded over the previous seven months.
The first trail is one that I have done several times since I began this project. The Loess Hills Ridge Trail is located in the Preparation Canyon Unit of the Loess Hills State Forest. This hike traverses two ridges that rise near Jones Creek Pond, where there is parking and a shelter, an ideal place to have a picnic after finishing the hike. This loop can be followed in either direction but clockwise leaves the easiest part at the end.
Beginning at the picnic shelter, the trail borders the southern end of Jones Creek Pond before entering the woods on the western side of the pond. You can explore the trail system of Jones Creek Pond as it meanders through a young forest of basswood, bur oak, bitternut hickory, black walnut, and other woodland species. Eventually, you want to take the trail named Prairie Pass (trail map with trail names available here) as it heads south to the forest’s edge. Here, the trail turns west and climbs uphill to reach the first ridge of this hike.
Once you reach the top of the ridge, the trail heads north along a classic example of the prairie ridges that once dominated the Loess Hills. When Lewis and Clark first came upon them, they dubbed them “bald hills” as the woodland invasion had not yet begun in earnest. Today, unfortunately, it is becoming exceedingly difficult to encounter prairie remnants in the Loess Hills. Enjoy the uninterrupted path along the ridge’s crest with expansive views west.
Both ridges this hike follows provide clear examples of the encroaching woodlands as they move uphill, particularly on their eastern slopes. As you walk north along the western ridge on this loop, notice bur oak and other trees on your right as the woodland comes right up to the ridgetop. On your left, you will find the invasive eastern redcedar, either solitary or in dense stands, that are the target of the prescribed burns and chainsaws of state forest rangers because it shades out native prairie grass. Several skeletal remains of dead eastern redcedars dot the western slope of the first ridge.
After two miles, the trail descends from the ridge through some trees to County Highway E60 and, after crossing the road, climbs to reach a clearing. Your initial instinct is to follow the ridge on your right heading south. Instead, continue ahead through a broad prairie heading due northeast. The trail bends southeast and becomes less open. Eventually, you will reach a confusing intersection. Don’t take the hard right that descends to the cornfield. Also, resist the urge to continue straight on the wide path under trees; this leads to another cornfield on the eastern side of the ridge. You want to stay on top of the ridge, so look for a narrow footpath cut deep into the earth that climbs up onto the grassy ridge. This intersection sorely needs a trail marker to point hikers in the right direction.
Once on top of the ridge, the trail comes and goes but the path is simple: continue atop the ridge heading southeast. The occasional Iowa DNR trail marker will confirm that you are on the right track. When you reach a deep roadcut in the ridge, the plan is the same: climb down, then back up to continue along the crest of the ridge heading southeast.
Eventually, the prairie is overtaken by eastern redcedar on both sides of the ridge. This forested section is an excellent spot to encounter wildlife. In December 2020, as I stopped along this section to check the Iowa DNR map and my GPS location, I heard a rustling in the woods on the eastern slope. I continued to look down until, from out of the redcedars, bounded a large whitetail deer with majestic antlers. The buck stopped in the middle of the trail, a mere twenty yards from me. We made eye contact, and before I could snap a photograph, it snorted and galloped down the western slope through the dense redcedar forest. Later, in January, dozens of turkey vultures took flight from the redcedar tops as I walked along the trail below.
The trail descends under the canopy of the trees until it reaches a cornfield. Head southwest toward a gravel road, following it to reach a gate and a small parking turnout off County Highway E60. Cross the road with Jones Creek Pond ahead of you, staying on the trail on the eastern side of the pond.
Before you return to the shelter and parking area, look for signs of a busy beaver or groundhog that has gnawed several trees to stumps. If you didn’t bring a picnic, two good places to stop for food or refreshment in nearby Pisgah are Dave’s Old Home Cafe or Sportsman Bar, the latter located in the same building as Loess Hills Country Corner. Pisgah is also home to the Loess Hills State Forest Visitor Center, an excellent source of information on the state forest and Loess Hills in general.
More info & resources:
Golden Hills, working with many partners, coordinated the first-ever LoHi Trek from June 6-9, 2021. The event attracted more than 30 participants from across Iowa and Nebraska. The name is from Lo(ess) Hi(lls) and was coined by Kelly Madigan, who hiked the entire length of the Loess Hills from South Dakota to Missouri in fall 2020. Learn more about Kelly's LoHi journey here.
The original plan was to have trekkers hike about 40 miles in 4 days, including both on- and off-road sections along the Loess Hills National Scenic Byway corridor. Because the temperatures were in the 90s, however, the group decided to remove some of the on-road sections and lessen the distance to keep everyone safe and well. Monona County Conservation Board offered a trailer that was used to haul everyone's gear, and the hikers camped in their own tents each night.
Day 1 began at the Loess Hills Prairie Seminar, where participants saw a program about raptor rehabilitation from Save Our Avian Resources and got an overview of the plan for the Trek. They got a sack lunch from Frannie's Cafe and were then driven to Southwood Conservation Area near Smithland. At Southwood, the trek started near the pond and took a trail to the Hammond Access on the south end of the park.
From there, the route took a gravel road into Rodney.
Just past Rodney, the hikers took a pit stop at the Pit Shop located at Rodney Pits/Peters Park. They had ice cream and other cold treats.
After Rodney Pits, the route took more rural county roads south past the historic Grant Cemetery.
The day ended at the Hargroves North tract of Loess Hills Wildlife Area near Ticonic, where participants set up tents in the shade. Dinner was provided by Ada J's Steakhouse in Ute.
The campsite was located near a pond that offered scenic sunset views.
Day 2 started with breakfast at the campsite, with coffee from Frontiers Coffee Company of Onawa. Day 2 was going to be the longest day of the Trek, but due to the heat, trekkers were shuttled by vehicle several miles down the road to Utterback Pond. From the pond, the group hiked up a prairie ridge through the Loess Hills Wildlife Area.
The route through Loess Hills Wildlife Area also included wooded areas and field edges.
Throughout the event, several participants provided insight and information about the Loess Hills, native plants, and ecology of the region.
Lunch was held at the Loess Hills Prairie Seminar site, provided by Divide Hill Roadhouse.
After more prairie ridges, the trek reached the Arcola Access, then hiked a gravel road east to Van & Jeannie Sterner's place for shade and refreshments.
The day ended at Kelly Madigan & Doug Chafa's property, which offered many recreational opportunities like swimming and paddling in the farm pond.
Several local residents joined with the hikers for dinner and discussed their love for the land and their reasons for living there.
Day 3 was also rerouted from the original route to shorten miles due to heat. Trekkers left the campsite and hiked up a ridge into Turin Wildlife Management Area.
From the wildlife area, trekkers took a county road south into the town of Turin, where lunch was provided by the Northwest Iowa group of the Sierra Club. Dave Poole, the mayor of Turin, opened the air-conditioned community center to provide some relief from the hot sun.
After Turin, the hikers were shuttled back to the Madigan property instead of the planned campsite because of the hot weather. Participants had down time in the afternoon and some completed watercolor paintings led by Melanie Vote and Anna Stoysich. Dinner was provided by Sabor a Mexico out of Ute, Iowa.
The fourth and final day was shortened again due to heat concerns. Trekkers were driven to a property owned by Iowa Natural Heritage Foundation south of Turin. INHF's Loess Hills Land Stewardship Director Kody Wohlers led the group through the property and discussed their stewardship efforts on the land.
Hikers were driven to the Brent Olson Loess Hills State Forest Visitor Center in Pisgah for lunch, provided by Dave's Old Home Cafe. After lunch, the final walk of the Trek took place at the Loess Hills State Forest overlook, where Sandy Harris with the Loess Hills Hospitality Association gave a welcome and offered souvenirs to hikers.
After the overlook, several trekkers drove a few miles up the road to the historic Mann Schoolhouse. This was planned to be the lunch site for the day as it would have been directly on the route, but lunch was relocated due to the heat. Local resident Judy Ehlers opened the school for a free educational tour of the building, which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. From there, trekkers headed home.
Despite the heat, the event was overall a success. Many participants expressed interest in other similar hikes in the Loess Hills.
Golden Hills would like to thank all of the partners that made the LoHi Trek successful, including:
Golden Hills will coordinate more Loess Hills hikes, so stay tuned at goldenhillsrcd.org
Golden Hills hosted a Forage Walk on the Wabash Trace Nature Trail in Imogene on Tuesday, May 18. Jamie Smidt Fowler of Shenandoah led a walk along the trail, discussing both native and invasive species along the trail, including edible & medicinal herbs & vegetables. Photos of the walk and some of the plants are included here.
If you decide to go foraging, always know with 100% certainty what plant you have, as some species are toxic and can even deadly if consumed. It's best to go with someone who knows proper plant identification, especially if you are new to foraging.
Below are photos of some of the common plant species discussed on the walk. Some of these are considered weeds by many people.
Shelly Eisenhauer with Bur Oak Photo attended the event and shared the photos below.
Funding for this event was provided by Fremont County Tourism. Golden Hills is hosting more outdoor events in Fremont County this year--stay tuned at goldenhillsrcd.org/fremontcounty.
Manti Park in eastern Fremont County is a hidden gem for history and nature enthusiasts. One of several parks managed by the City of Shenandoah, "Manti Park is a wooded park 41 acres in size located 1 mile south and 1 mile west of the intersection of State Highway 2 and 59. The Pottawattamie Indian Tribe originally inhabited this site. In 1852 forty Mormon families settled into the area and built the community known as Manti. Today the park is owned and maintained by the City of Shenandoah and is used for hiking, picnicking, bird watching, and many other outdoor activities."
The village of Manti once had as many as 500 residents. After the railroad was built through nearby Shenandoah, most of the townspeople relocated. Today there are few visible remnants of the community, but a cemetery is located in the southern part of the park. To learn more about the area's history, check out these links:
In addition to this history, Manti Park offers hiking trail with interpretation about some of the native plants and ecology. Many birds call the woods home, as well as numerous mammals, reptiles, & more. Take a walk and see what flora & fauna you can find in the park!
Manti Park is one of many amazing places to explore the great outdoors in southwest Iowa's Fremont County. Learn more about Golden Hills' Fremont County Outdoor Adventures here, and find tourism information for Fremont County at visitloesshills.org.
**Note that as of May 2021, the bridge immediately north of the park is closed due to construction, so check before you go to make sure you can get there. If the bridge is out, you can access Manti Park from J40 from the west.**
"May 5-15 is the absolute peak of Iowa spring migration in terms of overall diversity," according to Stephen Dinsmore with Iowa State University, and Fremont County in the southwestern corner of the state is one of the best places to see migrating birds. A 1991 Big Day count in Fremont County found 171 species of birds. Right now is the perfect time to go birding in southwest Iowa!
Global Big Day is an annual celebration of the birds around you. This year, it is Saturday, May 8--which is also World Migratory Bird Day.
To participate in Global Big Day, "report your bird observations to eBird online or with our free eBird Mobile app. If you have more time, submit checklists of birds throughout the day. You never know what you might spot. Your observations help us better understand global bird populations through products like these animated abundance maps brought to you by eBird Science."
"World Migratory Bird Day (WMBD) will imbue the activity of birdwatching, a past time enjoyed by some 86 million Americans, with deeper meaning. WMBD will teach participants at more than 700 locations from Argentina to Canada how to identify birds, how to connect with them, and how to delve deeper into bird biology, investigating such topics as the difference between birdsong and call, the mysteries of migration, and the astounding power of flight." Visit their website and watch the video below to learn more.
May is also American Wetlands Month. Fremont County has some of the largest wetland complexes in the region, including Riverton Wildlife Management Area (WMA) and several WMAs along the Missouri River. Learn more about wetlands here.
WMAs are typically open to hunting so be cognizant of that during waterfowl season. Outside of hunting season, WMAs are still excellent places to go birding and wildlife-watching. While Iowa has among the lowest amounts of public lands of all states, Fremont County has among the most public land per capita in Iowa. In addition to wetlands, the Missouri and Nishnabotna rivers are migratory flyways, and the prairies and woods of the Loess Hills provide diverse habitats for upland species.
Learn more about places to go birding, download a pdf of Fremont County's bird list, and find many other birding resources at goldenhillsrcd.org/birding.
In addition to birding opportunities, Fremont County offers many other outdoor recreation activities, and Golden Hills is coordinating events to encourage people to explore and enjoy the area. Visit our Fremont County Outdoor Adventures page for details.
April 24 this year is Celebrate Trails Day! This is "an annual spring celebration of America’s trails. Started by Rails-to-Trails Conservancy in 2013, the celebration encourages people all across the country to get outside and enjoy the nation’s exceptional trails and trail systems."
In southwestern Iowa we have many great trails to enjoy, with even more being planned and built. Just this week, a ribbon cutting was held for a new bridge along the Wabash Trace Nature Trail in Silver City. The Wabash is a 63-mile crushed limestone trail on a former rail line running from Council Bluffs to Blanchard.
Construction of the First Ave Trail in Council Bluffs also broke ground this week. This trail will provide an important connection between downtown Omaha, the Bob Kerrey Bridge, Riverfront Trail, and downtown Council Bluffs. Eventually the trail will connect with the new Pottawattamie County Trail under construction from Council Bluffs to Weston, Underwood, Neola, and beyond.
The new Pottawattamie County trail is part of the Great American Rail Trail (GART), a cross-country off-road trail from Washington, D.C. to Washington state.
The T-Bone Trail in Audubon and Cass counties is also part of the GART. While a gap has existed for many years between the T-Bone and the city of Atlantic, local leaders are currently working to extend the trail into Atlantic. From Atlantic, the proposed GART route connects with the planned Pottawattamie County trail near Neola.
These are just a few of the hundreds of miles of trails in our region. Looking for a new trail to explore? Check out our post about places to hike and walk in the Loess Hills Missouri River Region.
Before you go out and celebrate trails, visit our bicycling and walking information and resource page to ensure a fun and safe experience.
Learn more about the Frontier Iowa Trails network here.
As the weather warms, it's a great time to explore local trails. While you're out, keep your eyes peeled--Sasquatch has been spotted at several sites in western Iowa, including...
Pottawattamie County trail near Weston:
Wabash Trace Nature Trail in Malvern:
Hitchcock Nature Center in Pottawattamie County.
Willow Lake Nature Center near Woodbine in Harrison County
There are many more trails, parks, and wildlife areas to explore. Here are additional useful links and resources for safe walking and biking in western Iowa: